3 Powerful Ways Exercise Enhances Brain Health

Cathe Friedrich cycling in her Cycle Power workout which is an exercise that is also good for brain health


The benefits of exercise extend far beyond our outward appearance. Regular physical activity profoundly shapes the structure and function of the most complex organ in our bodies – our brains. Science continues to uncover evidence that exercise guards our mental faculties across the lifespan.

Did you know the impact of exercise is both immediate and long-lasting? A single bout of exercise can temporarily boost cognitive performance, while regular activity over time may help delay age-related cognitive decline. Even in older adults, fitness training increases brain volume in regions involved in memory and executive function.

Exercise promotes the birth of new neurons in the hippocampus, the brain’s learning and memory center while protecting existing cells. The message is clear – our brains, like our bodies, thrive when we add more exercise to our daily lives. Let’s look at three ways that exercise boosts brain function.

 Memory Enhancement

Could the fountain of youth be found in something as simple as exercise? Emerging research suggests it very well may.

While we all expect our bodies to reap physical benefits from working out, exercise has a profound effect on the inner workings of our brains. Studies reveal that staying active can reverse signs of cognitive decline and preserve our ability to form memories as we age.

The key lies in preventing age-related shrinkage in brain regions crucial for learning and recall. Brain imaging studies show that just 6 months of aerobic exercise training boosts brain volume in older adults. Even more incredible, studies reveal that regular walking can reverse the shrinkage of the hippocampus – the brain’s memory and learning headquarters.

Along with structural brain changes, exercise also triggers a surge of a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF acts like a fertilizer for neurons, stimulating growth of new brain cells and connections. This builds a buffer against normal age-related volume loss.

Higher BDNF levels also correlate with improved memory function in individuals of all ages. The link between physical activity, BDNF, and long-term memory has captured the interest of neuroscientists worldwide. They believe BDNF may preserve recall by turning on neurogenesis – the birth of new neurons – deep within the hippocampus.

Animal studies support the idea that we can jog our memories through exercise. Though more research is needed, the prospect of boosting cognition through sweat has implications for addressing memory disorders like Alzheimer’s.

So, while a magic anti-aging elixir may still be the stuff of legends, science shows exercise may be the closest prescription we’ve got. It not only builds strength and endurance but builds and maintains the neural pathways that store our most precious memories.

Nourishing Blood Vessels

Our intricate web of blood vessels is the lifeline that nourishes our hungry brains. Though the brain accounts for just 2-3% of body mass, it commands an outsized portion – 15% – of our blood flow. This disproportionate share underscores the brain’s relentless demand for oxygen-rich blood to fuel its complex neural activities.

Like a revving engine gulping gas, localized blood flow escalates when groups of neurons fire during focused thought. So, in many ways, the vitality of our brains depends on the health of the vessels ferrying blood to its far reaches. Healthy, robust vasculature ensures a steady supply of nutrients for optimal cognitive function.

We can strengthen this critical infrastructure through exercise. Physical activity stimulates the growth of new blood vessels branching into hippocampal regions where neurogenesis occurs. More vessels supply the blossoming neurons with ample blood and oxygen. For existing vessels, exercise improves the integrity of their inner linings to enhance blood flow to neural tissue.

Exercise is also a strategy for combating hypertension, a prevalent condition threatening brain vessel health. It enhances vessels’ form and function through several mechanisms, equipping them for the non-stop delivery of blood the brain demands.

So, while we focus on exercise’s physical benefits, its blood vessel protection. warrants equal attention. Nurturing this life-sustaining network pays cognitive dividends now and safeguards the brain against decline in the years to come.

Taming Inflammation

Our brains have security forces that protect their precious neural territory – brain cells called microglia. Acting as round-the-clock sentries, microglia patrol for invaders or damaged cells that may threaten brain function. When threats arise, these immune cells swiftly remove the danger and restore homeostasis.

But over time, the aging process can tire these tireless protectors. Chronic inflammation hampers microglia’s efficiency in fending off threats that contribute to Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Fortunately, research shows that exercise can re-energize and retrain these specialized forces to maximize their defensive duties. Physical activity reprograms microglia in aging brains to operate at peak performance – cleaning up inflammation-inducing debris more swiftly and thwarting memory loss.

So how can we ensure our fitness regimens provide this brain boost benefit? While guidelines are still evolving, most studies suggest aerobic exercise like brisk walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming for brain health but strength training has its place too. Include muscle-strengthening and aerobic exercise for whole-body health benefits.

This research underscores exercise’s multifaceted benefits, though variation exists between studies. But one conclusion is clear – physical activity is a worthy investment in your cognitive health. So, mobilize your brain’s specialized forces and prioritize exercise. Our memories will thank us down the road.


The verdict is in – physical activity is one of the most potent tools you have for enhancing and preserving brainpower. It stimulates neurogenesis and the growth of new neural connections, enhancing memory capacity and learning. It nurtures the vasculature supplying oxygen and nutrients to nourish our neurons. And it optimizes the performance of microglia, the brain’s immune sentinels charged with preventing inflammation.

But we need not be fitness fanatics to reap rewards – even moderate exercise integrated into everyday life can pay dividends. The key is consistency. Invest in your brain health today and reap the rewards of cognitive vigor for years to come.


  • Thomas AG, Dennis A, Bandettini PA, Johansen-Berg H. The effects of aerobic activity on brain structure. Front Psychol. 2012 Mar 23;3:86. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00086. PMID: 22470361; PMCID: PMC3311131.
  • Colcombe SJ, Erickson KI, Scalf PE, Kim JS, Prakash R, McAuley E, Elavsky S, Marquez DX, Hu L, Kramer AF. Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. J Gerontol a Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Nov;61(11):1166-70. doi: 10.1093/gerona/61.11.1166. PMID: 17167157.
  • Walsh JJ, Tschakovsky ME. Exercise and circulating BDNF: Mechanisms of release and implications for the design of exercise interventions. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018 Nov;43(11):1095-1104. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0192. Epub 2018 May 18. PMID: 29775542.
  • Canbolat M, Kafkas AS, Erbay MF, Senol D, Çevirgen F, Senol P, Ozbag D. Exercise is good also for a healthy hippocampus. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019;120(10):739-743. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2019_123. PMID: 31663348.
  • “Endorphins: The brain’s natural pain reliever – Harvard Health.” 20 Jul. 2021, https://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/endorphins-the-brains-natural-pain-reliever.

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Want to Sharpen Your Memory? Try Flexing Your Muscles

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